Story of the Park

Mljet – the green island. The Ogygia of Homer's Odyssey. According to legend, the nymph Calypso, lover of the Greek hero Odysseus, chose this island as her home. The beauty of the island was the only beauty surpassing hers, making Odysseus, that eternal traveler, stay there for years. Are there any facts in the legend? Some historians are convinced that, by describing Ogygia, Homer actually wrote about the island of Mljet. Others doubt that. The romantics would say that only the sea knows the answer. Well, whatever the answer may be, a cave bearing the name of Odysseus, that Greek adventurer, still stands there carved in stone.

As one looks from the open sea, there is a barely visible narrow passage cutting into the island. It is the channel of Soline, letting the sea enter into the island, opening it and creating first Veliko jezero, larger of the two “lakes”, and then Malo jezero, smaller “lake” separated by an even narrower channel from the larger one. That is how the so-called “lakes” of the south-Dalmatian island of Mljet, the eighth island in Croatia in terms of size, were created.

The Soline Channel permits permanent water exchange between the “lakes” and the open sea. Depending on changes between high and low tide, the sea current changes direction every six hours. It is a phenomenon of global relevance. Such dynamics of seawater exchange resulted in the biggest Mediterranean colony of cushion coral (Cladocora caespitosa) at the entry to Veliko jezero.

What is special about Malo jezero, the smaller lake, is the density of the population of the noble pen shell (Pinna nobilis), and the phenomenon of whitings (suspension of aragonite). There is no other place in the Mediterranean where one could encounter such a phenomenon, which typically occurs in major tropical and subtropical systems, for example on the Bahamas.

Mljet is the first Adriatic national park, the beauty of which keeps inviting the passenger to return to this place of permanent and constantly renewed discovery.

The Illyrians first settled on this greenest Mediterranean island over four thousand years ago.

Omnipresent vegetation and five different types of forests grow here under the watchful eye of experts. Benedictine monks added to the beauty of the island, taking great care of it as feudal masters of Mljet over the course of several centuries. Every year, the monks would choose six farm hands and six shepherds from the island, who would spend one year in the territory of the current Park. Prohibition of permanent settling, issued by the monastery, lasted until the end of the 18th century. It was only in 1793 that Benedictine monks permitted several farmers from the settlement of Babino Polje to permanently settle near the monastery, in order to take care of livestock for the purposes of the monastery. They were the families of Milić and Stražičić-Basto. It was cattle, and the Croatian term govedo used for it, that gave the name to the new settlement: Goveđari.

The sea, lakes, karst pits and caves – all that is present on the island of Mljet. Every small part of the island, which is the oldest marine park of the Mediterranean, is a source of life. With the establishment of the National Park, the terrestrial part of the area was protected in 1960, together with the channel of Soline, Veliko jezero and Malo jezero. The surrounding sea was added to the area of the Park in 1997. The exceptional quality of nature of the island of Mljet demanded the establishment of the National Park.

There are many other reasons as well: preserved forests of holm oak and Aleppo pine; cultural and historical heritage ranging back to the times of the Illyrians, the Roman Empire and the Dubrovnik Republic; salty “lakes”; unique plant and animal life; well-indented coast; numerous cliffs, rocks and islets.

The panorama of the indented coast and perennial green vegetation of the surrounding hills that rise above the sea hides numerous karst fields and settlements built of stone by the hands of the Dalmatian man. These are just some landscapes inviting visitors to come; writings and oral testimonies about them come second.

Vegetation never ceases being fresh in this area. It wraps the karst fields and settlements built of island stone in a majestic atmosphere, and allows you to freely explore it due to the fact that the island is passable.

The southern coast of the island is steep, and marked by a number of caved-in caves. Many endemic Dalmatian plants grow here, the most attractive being the Dubrovnik knapweed. Other endemic species include L. anfractum, Aurinia leucadea and Cynanchum acutum. Approximately thirty orchid species also grow on the island; the most widespread are the Italian orchid and Ophrys liburnica.

The macchia is particularly dense for a Mediterranean region. Holm oak is dominant, but one also comes across other broadleaved plants: strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo), mock privet (Phillyrea media), tree heath (Erica arborea) and true myrtle (Myrtus communis). Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua) also grows on the island, as well as wild olive (Olea oleaster), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) and many conifers.

People found a way how to use almost every species. Carob tree gives edible fruits; fruits of the strawberry tree were used to prepare grappa and jam; mastic was used to protect fishing nets. Myrtle shoots were used to make fish traps and baskets.

This is a karst terrain, a full-blooded Mediterranean area.

The area is covered by a network of walking trails, allowing even the most passionate and curious visitors to thoroughly investigate the area and the accessibility of the Park, either on foot or by cycling.

The two “lakes” cut into the island by the sea, that we mentioned at the beginning of this story about the island of Mljet, are globally relevant geological and oceanographic phenomenon. The surface of the bigger “lake”, Veliko jezero, is 145 hectares, and it is up to 46 meters deep. The surface of the smaller “lake”, Malo jezero, is 24 hectares, and it is up to 29 meters deep. They are not fully researched yet, and there are still many unknowns regarding their depths and the underlying system of salty “lakes”, which is why they are attractive to natural scientists and visitors looking for true nature.

In the center of the larger “lake” lies a must-see tourist spot, the picturesque St. Mary’s Island with the church and the Benedictine monastery dating from the 12th century. They were built in Romanesque style; however, during the period of the Dubrovnik Republic, alterations and additions to the monastery gave it the appearance of a monumental Renaissance villa with visible Romanesque elements. While the monastery changed its appearance over the centuries, it never lost its significance. It remained a source of cultural influence, with renowned scholars and poets visiting it, such as the poet and historian Ignjat Đorđić.

Valuable remains of a Roman palace can be seen in the Park as well. It was built in the 5th century on the remains of a settlement built three centuries earlier, for the needs of a Roman dignitary on the property of the Empire, which encompassed entire Mljet until the end of the 12th century. The center of this complex architectural site is the monumental palace located on the coast. In the immediate vicinity are thermae, the so-called Northern Complex, commercial facilities of Lazarei, two sacral complexes – the Eastern and the Western Basilica, Kaštio citadel, and an ancient port.

All the settlements on the island are linked by road. Every road of Mljet is worth exploring, because the island is packed with interesting sites. On the southern part of the coast, one can find Jama, better known as the Odysseus Cave – a karst cavity the ceiling of which caved in. That gives it the appearance of a pit, or a well with a wide opening. The bottom of Jama is connected with the open sea, so visitors can get quite surprised when they see fishing boats in it. The owners come from the nearby settlement of Babino Polje, the biggest on the island. The locals skillfully descend to the boats, as the guests look on towards the bottom of the “pit”.

According to adventurers, the Greek hero Odysseus stayed on this island after the shipwreck, mesmerized by its natural beauty, and the cave is named after him. For seven years, the nymph Calypso, daughter of Atlas, held Odysseus captive in the cave, until she finally set him free upon the order of Zeus.

The island of Mljet managed to surpass Calypso’s beauty – luckily for her, because that is how she kept the eternal traveler on the island.

Many experts have no doubts that the island of Ogygia from Homer’s Odyssey is Mljet, that magical island of thick forests... ”[...] there were also four running rills of water in channels cut pretty close together, and turned hither and thither...”

Odyssey V, 59

There are four water sources on Mljet that never run dry. Out of all the islands of the Mediterranean, details of the description correspond only to Mljet.

Descriptions of beauty are frequently best seen in legends. Let us mention, therefore, the one about a young Roman exiled to the island of Mljet. Upon receiving a question by his father – “How are you doing on Mljet, my son?” – he sent a symbolic answer. Instead of a letter, the father got a branch with a bird’s nest on top, and a shell on the bottom of the branch. Father knew he needn’t worry about his son.

Park ID Card - information about the Park

Natural heritage

The island of Mljet is a genuine treasure trove of biodiversity. It includes orchids and various endemic species in their terrestrial habitats, and the submarine world around the island is home to Posidonia oceanica – endemic Mediterranean species creating submarine meadows important for an entire range of marine communities, making it one of the ecologically most valuable habitats of the National Park.

Circling above the sea surface, one can see Audouin’s gull, the most endangered gull species of the Adriatic, as well as peregrine falcon and European shag. The powerful pulse of nature on Mljet is equally remarkable in its green and blue varieties.

Plant world

There are over fifty strictly protected plant species in the Park, orchids being especially abundant with thirty or so species (Italian orchid, Ophrys liburnica, violet limodore, autumn lady’s-tresses, etc.). Endemic species include the Dubrovnik knapweed, pyrethrum and certain lavender species. Plant species abound in the undersea world of the Park, including Posidonia oceanica seagrass and little Neptune grass. Posidonia oceanica is an endemic Mediterranean species creating undersea meadows of major importance for an entire range of communities, and it represents one of the ecologically most valuable and most sensitive habitats of the Mljet National Park.

Over 85% of the terrestrial part of the Park is covered by forests, the surface of which is spreading further due to secondary succession developing on abandoned agricultural land. Two thirds of forests are marked by degradation stages of holm oak communities, and one third pertains to various levels of Aleppo pine shrubs. When it comes to holm oak forests, one comes across fragments of coppices approximately one hundred years old, with trees over 20 meters in height and trunk diameter exceeding 30 centimeters. Macchia with prevailing holm oak is well preserved, transforming into the higher stage, coppice. Holm oak stands are primarily present in northern exposures, and Aleppo pine in southern exposures. In addition to holm oak, the most frequent broadleaved evergreen species include strawberry tree, laurestine, mock privet, mastic and common myrtle, the twigs of which are used to make the fish traps of Mljet, with fruits used in the production of an excellent liqueur.  Aleppo pine is not an autochthonous species; autochthonous conifers in the Park are Phoenician juniper and prickly juniper.

Animal world

Terrestrial and marine areas of Mljet National Park are extraordinarily rich in natural values, the preservation of which constitutes a priority management objective for this protected area. Over 200 strictly protected species can be found in the Park. The most interesting phenomenon of the Park area are two deep bays filled with sea water, known as Veliko jezero and Malo jezero, or “Big Lake” and “Small Lake”. They represent a unique ecosystem with a number of bivalve, fish, snail, cnidarian and other sea organism species. Among many specific characteristics of the area, we should mention the dense population of noble pen shell present in the area, extraordinary large and old specimens of the Mediterranean scallop, and the biggest recorded colony of bush coral, an endemic species of the Mediterranean, covering over 650 square meters of the Veliko jezero seafloor.

When it comes to terrestrial life, birds are a significant presence; due to dominant forest habitats, some species recorded in the Park are not typical for Croatian islands, such as honey buzzard, tawny owl and eagle owl. Another important species is peregrine falcon, nesting on inaccessible parts of the coast. Sea birds include Audouin’s gull, the most endangered gull species in Croatia, and European shag.

In numerous speleological sites on the island, one comes across a number of endemic species, some of which can be found only in this area, such as, for example, snail species Meledella werneri and amphipod species Cyphodillidium absoloni. Bats also inhabit the caves, significantly enriching the fauna of the island with approximately ten species.

With the introduction of small Asian mongoose to the island in 1910, the ecosystem suffered a serious hit, with snakes as the biggest victims. Horned viper thus ended up exterminated, while the numbers of other snake species have been reduced.

Cultural and historical heritage

Fishermen on the island of Mljet still believe that St. Paul’s Passage is the place to pass through on their way to fishing, for that is where St. Paul blessed the sea having found his salvation on that very spot following a shipwreck. The history of Mljet is also reflected in its Benedictine monastery, and in a legend that the ancient Greek hero Odysseus stopped right here on his voyage, enchanted by the beauty of the nymph Calypso and the island itself.

Many historians believe that the Ogygia of Homer’s Odyssey is, in fact, the island of Mljet. One of the caves on the island, the Odysseus Cave, is named after the ancient Greek hero, and many refer to the island of Mljet as the island of Odysseus.

Benedictine monastery

The Benedictine monastery situated on the small island of St. Mary’s in the southern part of Veliko jezero on the island of Mljet was built in mid-12th century. The Benedictines first built a monastery on the small island, followed by a church. The church was changing its appearance over the centuries, passing through the Renaissance and Baroque style, but its central part is Romanesque in character. The Church of St. Mary within the monastery complex is a single-nave Romanesque (Apulian) building, modeled after the Benedictine role-model church in Monte Gargano. Today, the monastery building is a two-storey Renaissance complex surrounded by a courtyard on two sides. The main wing facing the courtyard has an arcade hallway. A defense tower stands on the southeastern corner, with all the buildings, including the church, representing a defense unit. The monastery also underwent reconstruction during the Renaissance period, and it forms an integral complex together with the church.

The history of the monastery itself goes back to distant 1198, when Pope Innocent III issued a document consecrating the Church of St. Mary on the island bearing the same name in Veliko jezero on the island of Mljet. The Benedictines structured the monastery based on the Rule of Saint Benedict. For a number of years, they successfully cared for the island, praising God and living in harmony with nature. Among the Benedictines of the monastery, one comes across many significant historical characters, such as Mavro Vetranović Čavčić, the most productive Croatian Poet of his age, and Ignjat Đurđević, Croatian poet and historian. In 1345, the Benedictines surrendered their authority over one part of the island, and Mljet received its Statute and Univerzija (municipality) in Babino Polje, formally becoming part of the Dubrovnik Republic in 1410. The monastery was actively functioning until 1809, when it was vacated following the arrival of Napoleon’s rule. Since then, the owners of the Island of St. Mary changed on several occasions; at one point, the state was managing the monastery property via its directorate for forestry, and the monastery gradually came into disrepair. In 1960, the monastery was converted into a hotel, and operated in that role until 1991. Finally, in 1998, the monastery was returned to the Diocese of Dubrovnik.

Odysseus cave

The best-known island legend is the one about the Greek hero Odysseus, and about the cave named after him.

Odysseus, the Greek hero whose shrewdness and courage brought an end to the ten-year Trojan War, returns to Ithaca of his birth. On his way home, he falls out of favor with Poseidon, and endures many challenges and adventures, including the seven-year captivity at the hands of the nymph Calypso.

Following a shipwreck, encounter with sirens, Scylla and Charybdis, and loss of his comrades, Odysseus floats on two wooden beams fighting with the sea. On the ninth day, currents and waves bring him to Ogygia (Mljet), the island of the nymph Calypso. 

Calypso, the daughter of Atlas, refuses to release him from the island, promising him immortality and happiness. The shrewd warrior, however, resists the spell of the nymph with whom he spends his nights in a cave, and spends his mornings in front of the cave, crying for Penelope, Telemachus, his family and his home on Ithaca.

After seven years, at the request of Athena, Zeus sends Hermes to rescue Odysseus. Hermes persuades Calypso to set Odysseus free, which she does. Odysseus thus leaves the island on a raft, with some food, water and wine.

Poseidon, still angry at Odysseus for having blinded his son, sends yet more storms threatening Odysseus and slowing his return. However, as we all know, Odysseus will reach Ithaca just in time to save his family and his home.

This is a simplified summary of the part of Odyssey dedicated to the return of Odysseus to Ithaca. This epic poem written by Homer contains over 12,000 lines of dactylic hexameter, and stems from the 8th century B.C.

St. Paul's Passage

Fishermen on the island of Mljet still believe that St. Paul’s Passage is the place to pass through on their way to fishing, for this is where St. Paul blessed the sea having found his salvation on that very spot following a shipwreck. People also say that a nearby field still provides abundant yields of barley and vine precisely because that was the place where the islanders fed the exhausted and hungry castaway.

Both the field and the passage are located on the southeastern tip of the island, right next to the undersea rock of Šepurine that is barely visible in bad weather, and that is connected with the legend about the shipwreck.

People also say that the castaway survived a venomous snake bite as he was warming himself up by the fire that the islanders made in order to save his life.

There are two interpretations of the story about the shipwreck of St. Paul’s: Melita was the name used not only for Mljet, but also for Malta; however, the majority of arguments speak in favor of the theory that the shipwreck happened somewhere along the coast of Mljet.

“And when neither sun nor stars in many days appeared, and no small tempest lay on [us,] all hope that we should be saved was then taken away [...] But when the fourteenth night was come, as we were driven up and down in Adria, about midnight the shipmen deemed that they drew near to some country [...] And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called Melita.” This is an excerpt from the Acts of the Apostles, where St. Luke speaks of the shipwreck of St. Paul whose ship ran aground and was destroyed somewhere in Adria... St. Luke, companion of St. Paul, was also the first person to leave a written record about the event.

Ignjat Đurđević also wrote about this event in detail in his book published in Venice in 1730. St. Paul: Castaway Apostle is a monumental scientific work written in Latin, in which the author elaborates on the life of St. Paul upon the shipwreck on the Dalmatian island of Mljet.

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